ه‍.ش. ۱۳۸۸ آبان ۱۷, یکشنبه

ترفند قلب سمبل های زیبایی

پیرامون طرح امسالم برای درک و پیدا کردن شیوه درمان آنچه موجب چنین فاجعه ای در امروز ما شده، یکی از کتابهایی که شروع کردم، کتابیه که در مورد خلبان ها و و دریانورد های ژاپنی آخر جنگ جهانی که عملیات انتحاری انجام دادن، وقت نزدیکی استیصال ژاپن، نوشته شده، بر اساس خاطراتشون. داغونم میکنه این کتاب. دانشجوهای نخبه ای که وارد این کار شده اند، تمام آثار بزرگ زمان خودشون رو عموما به زبان اصلی (فرانسه، انگلیسی، آلمانی، روسی) خونده بودند (لیست کتابهاشون در آخر این کتابه هست)، و دفترچه های خاطراتشون حیرت آوره (مثلا 700 صفحه مال یه نفر) که توش بزرگترین آثار رو نقد میکرده اند. واقعا حیرت انگیزه این کتاب. یه بخش از اول کتاب رو گفتم تایپ کنم، اینجا بگذارم:

Aestheticization facilitated méconnaissance, a common phenomenon is symbolic communication in which actors fail to recognize that they are reading different meanings of the same symbol. The pilots endorsed the aesthetics of Japanese nature, and of cherry blossoms as a dominant symbol of nature, without realizing how these symbols were locked into the pro rege et patria mori ideology. Neither side – pilots or the state – was fully aware of the phenomenon. The young men found aesthetics in the purity of devotion to their country without realizing that such devotion was exactly what the state wanted so that they would die for the emperor qua Japan – not their Japan, but imperial Japan.
I further develop the insight of Langer and Leach on this crucial element in our symbolic communication, which hitherto has received little attention. Symbolic méconnaissance is usually facilitated by two factors. First, each symbol has a vast field of meanings, any one of which may be drawn on by the actor, resulting in the possibility of multiple significations coexisting in a given context. Second, méconnaissance is further facilitated by the fact that the meanings of a symbol are embedded in processes and relationships – life predicated upon death, women in relation to men, and so forth. Therefore, when a social agent moves the signification of a symbol across the field of meanings – so that, for example, the meaning of cherry blossoms shifts from life to death – the movement may go unrecognized.
In the final analysis, it was their quest for aesthetics, along with their romanticism and idealism, that doomed them to act as they did. And it was from their readings that they developed their Weltanschauung and their aesthetics. The young men would have been able to fight against the political nationalism orchestrated by the state if it had been presented to them blatantly. But when it was mediated by the lofty intellectual traditions of the West, they failed to recognize the hand of the pro-military political and intellectual leaders at work. They would have been able to resist the naked propaganda of Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer, as we see in the diaries. However, when the “general will,” transformed by the Nazi and Japanese states, was seen as the general will of Rousseau and Kant, they were disarmed and did not suspect the wicked hand of manipulation. Or, they eagerly embraced beautiful nature in the works of Rousseau, Beethoven, Goethe, or Thomas Mann, not suspecting that the Nazis also mobilized the aesthetics of nature in the motto of “Blood and Soil” (Blut und Boden). Like many European men who fought in World War I, the young pilots memorized Nietzsche’s Also sprach Zarathustra, recited Les Fleurs du mal by Baudelaire, and expressed their agony by referring to the two souls in Faust. They were inspired by Emerson’s “Hitch your wagon to a star,” identifying the star as their intellectual and spiritual idealism, rather than as earthly ambition. Méconnaissance indeed played a critical role in this tragedy – as, unfortunately, it has in many other wars.

From: Kamikaze, Cherry Blossoms and Nationalisms: The Militarization of Aesthetics in Japanese History, by Emiko Ohnuki-Tierney (2002)

4 comments:

میلاد گفت...

سعی کردم پارگراف آخر رو بفهمم اما ، حدودا لغوی فهمیدم . منظور از این جمله چیه ؟
The young men would have been able to fight against the political nationalism orchestrated by the state if it had been presented to them blatantly. But when it was mediated by the lofty intellectual traditions of the West, they failed to recognize the hand of the pro-military political and intellectual leaders at work.

Mohammad KhoshZaban گفت...

به میلاد:
یعنی جوانهایی که ناسیونالیسم، اگر کاملا رک و واضح بهشون عرضه میشد، میتونستن بحنگن باهاش، چون توسط کلی مسائل عمیق و فکری زیبا عرضه میشد، نتونستن تشخیص بدن که این همون نظامی گری سیاسیه.
امیدوارم منتقل شده باشه.
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Mohammad KhoshZaban گفت...

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